HTML - Tutorial

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language, which is the most widely used language on the Web to develop web pages. HTML was created by Berners-Lee in late 1991 but “HTML 2.0” was the first standard HTML specification which was published in 1995. HTML 4.01 was a major version of HTML and it was published in late 1999. Though the HTML 4.01 version is widely used currently we are having an HTML-5 version which is an extension to HTML 4.01, and this version was published in 2012.

Why Learn HTML?

Originally, HTML was developed with the intent of defining the structure of documents like headings, paragraphs, lists, and so forth to facilitate the sharing of scientific information between researchers. Now, HTML is being widely used to format web pages with the help of different tags available in HTML language.

HTML is a MUST for students and working professionals to become a great Software Engineer especially when they are working in Web Development Domain. I will list down some of the key advantages of learning HTML.

  • Create a Web site – You can create a website or customize an existing web template if you know HTML well.
  • Become a web designer – If you want to start a career as a professional web designer, HTML and CSS designing is a must skill.
  • Understand web – If you want to optimize your website, to boost its speed and performance, it is good to know HTML to yield the best results.
  • Learn other languages – Once you understand the basics of HTML then other related technologies like javascript, PHP, or angular are easier to understand.

Hello World using HTML

Just to give you a little excitement about HTML, I’m going to give you a small conventional HTML Hello World program.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>This is document title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>Hello World!</p>
</body>
</html>
Applications of HTML

As mentioned before, HTML is one of the most widely used languages over the web. I’m going to list a few of them here.

  • Web pages development – HTML is used to create pages that are rendered over the web. Almost every page of the web is having HTML tags in it to render its details in the browser.
  • Internet Navigation – HTML provides tags which are used to navigate from one page to another and are heavily used in internet navigation.
  • Responsive UI – HTML pages nowadays work well on all platforms, mobile, tabs, desktop, or laptops owing to a responsive design strategy.
  • Offline support HTML pages once loaded can be made available offline on the machine without any need for the internet.
  • Game development– HTML5 has native support for rich experience and is now useful in the gaming development arena as well.
Basic HTML Document

In its simplest form, the following is an example of an HTML document.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>This is document title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>Document content goes here.....</p>
</body>
</html>

OUTPUT:

This is a heading

Document content goes here…..

HTML Tags 

As told earlier, HTML is a markup language and makes use of various tags to format the content. These tags are enclosed within angle braces <Tag Name>. Except for a few tags, most of the tags have their corresponding closing tags. For example, <html> has its closing tag </html> and <body> tag has its closing tag </body> tag etc.

The above example of an HTML document uses the following tags.

 

Sr.No

Tag & Description

1

<!DOCTYPE…>

This tag defines the document type and HTML version.

2

<html>

This tag encloses the complete HTML document and mainly comprises a document header which is represented by <head>…</head> and a document body which is represented by <body>…</body> tags.

3

<head>

This tag represents the document’s header which can keep other HTML tags like <title>, <link> etc.

4

<title>

The <title> tag is used inside the <head> tag to mention the document title.

5

<body>

This tag represents the document’s body which keeps other HTML tags like <h1>, <div>, <p> etc.

6

<h1>

This tag represents the heading.

7

<p>

This tag represents a paragraph.

To learn HTML, you will need to study various tags and understand how they behave while formatting a textual document. Learning HTML is simple as users have to learn the usage of different tags in order to format the text or images to make a beautiful webpage.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends using lowercase tags starting from HTML 4.

HTML Document Structure

A typical HTML document will have the following structure.

<html>
<head>
Document header related tags
</head>
<body>
Document body related tags
</body>
</html>

We will study all the header and body tags in subsequent chapters, but for now, let’s see what is the document declaration tag.

The <!DOCTYPE> Declaration

The <!DOCTYPE> declaration tag is used by the web browser to understand the version of the HTML used in the document. The current version of HTML is 5 and it makes use of the following declaration.